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Good afternoon,
This is the research question that I need Methods Questionnaire for:
Is there a relationship between one’s level of comfortability with sexual expression and one’s level of happiness?
I have also attached the Reseaarch Paper introduction where the variables can be found. The file attached is
Group 1_ Team Submission_Introduction_Edited_YP
I have attached the articles below.
Instruction (Please see example file attached)
You have two variables so you will need to measure both. To meet the requirements for this project, one variable must be measured using an original questionnaire that you create. For measuring the other variable, you are allowed to use an existing published questionnaire, write another original questionnaire or if appropriate, write a single demographic question. You will need the information in this lab for your pre-work and group meeting this week. Here is an example of what you will be learning to create in this lab: Example Questionnaire KeyDownload Example Questionnaire Key. Follow the steps below to create the measures for your two variables:
1. Let’s start with choosing the one variable from your group’s hypothesis that you are going to write a questionnaire for.
Choose to write a questionnaire for the variable that you think is more ambiguous, has more dimensions and/or is harder to operationally define.
For example, the variable “partying” is more ambiguous and has more dimensions to measure than the variable “income”. For income, you would just ask someone a single question like, “what was the income amount reported on your last tax return?” Whereas, for “partying”, you would need to measure all of the different substances consumed, the amounts of each, where the behavior commonly takes place, with whom, etc. so we would consider “partying” to be multi-dimensional.
If both variables are ambiguous, just choose either one for now.
2. Now that you have chosen one variable from your group’s hypothesis to measure, follow the steps listed below to create a questionnaire and a key (aka. a code book) for it:
Note: Just like a teacher writes an exam AND an answer key, you will need to write a questionnaire AND a key. Writing the key correctly is very important. If you do not make the key correctly, it will be nearly impossible to analyze your data later.
Step 1: Write a title for the questionnaire.
Your participants will not see this title. It is for your research paper. In the event, your paper were to be published, other researchers may want to use the questionnaire you wrote (for measuring this one variable) in their research. They would refer to it by the title you give it. For example, a title for measuring the variable “stress” in college students could be, “The College Student Stress Scale”.
If you are going to refer to your title more than once in your paper, you will need to use an acronym in the interest of being concise. However, there are rules for using acronyms in APA formatting. The rule is that you need to first spell out the words with the acronym next to it in parenthesis (EX: United States of America (USA)) then going forward you may just use the acronym (EX. USA).
The title should be straightforward and adhere to APA Stylistics (no poetic language, maintain a scientific tone, be clear, be concise, etc.)
Step 2: Write the response scale
Determine how many points you will have on your response scale
A Likert scale has either 5, 7, or 9 points
Determine the words you will use at each point
Each point on a Likert scale has words/phrases associated with it that indicate various levels of agreement or disagreement (Ex: Strongly agree, mildly opposed, somewhat in favor, etc.)
All Likert scales include a neutral option in the middle of the response scale
Write your Likert response scale at the top of your key (below your title). Here is an example of a 5-point Likert scale:
1=Strongly Disagree
2=Somewhat Disagree
4=Somewhat Agree
5=Strongly Agree
Use the same exact response scale for each item on the questionnaire
Below your response scale, include an explanation of what each point represents in terms of your variable. For example, let’s say you are measuring the variable introversion. You write a questionnaire item that reads, “I enjoy alone time” and a participant responds with, “5-strongly agree”. In this case, a “5” represents a high level of introversion so you might explain your points as follows:
1=very extraverted
2=somewhat extraverted
4=somewhat introverted
5=very introverted
Step 3: Write 10 “regular” questionnaire items (ie. statements
We will be writing a questionnaire in a “Likert type” format so we will write statements for our participants to agree or disagree with rather than asking them questions. We call these statements “items”. We are referring to them as “regular” items because we will also write other types of items (eg. reversed coded and irrelevant items).
It’s very important that agreeing to “regular” questionnaire items always means the same thing. From the example above, a response of “5” should indicate very introverted for every regular item that you write.
Note: Using the same example, if responding “5-strongly agree” on an item indicates that the participant is extraverted then that would be a reverse-coded item. More on that later.
You will need to write items that measure your variable and ONLY that variable.
So let’s say that your variable is “sexual satisfaction”, you would need to avoid writing items that measure relationship satisfaction, for example. Although, relationship satisfaction may be related to sexual satisfaction it is an entirely different variable and would need to be measured separately. Be very careful to directly measure the variable in a straightforward way. If you measure other variables, accidentally, then your study will be invalid and you will not be able to support your hypothesis. We will be running a statistical analysis later in the semester to see how well your items measured your variable and only your variable.
Some participants are easily confused by questions while other participants like to analyze questionnaire items and may overthink the meaning of the item. This behavior from the respondents impedes their ability to provide accurate responses. Write your items with the following in mind to increase the accuracy of your participants’ responses:
Keep questions short, simple and use basic language. Write items for a person that is reading at about an 8th grade level. You do not want to confuse your participants.
Avoid double-barreled questions (ie. don’t use “and” or “or”).
Avoid biased wording.
Avoid writing items with grand pronouncements like “I never enjoy cuddling” and instead, write “I rarely enjoy cuddling”. Use words like “often, regularly, occasionally, sometimes, most of the time, rarely, etc.” In most cases, using words like “always” or “never” prohibits participants from being able to provide an accurate response.
Use proper grammar and correct spelling while adhering to APA stylistics.
Make sure the items that you write makes sense with the response scale. For example, if you write an item that says, “I like pizza” then a response scale with anchors of “strongly opposed” and “strongly in favor” would not make sense. Be sure that the response options make sense for each item.
For purposes of the key, you should number these ten items (1-10) and put the first letter of the variable before the number to denote that it is a regular question. For example, if my variable was “Happiness”, I would label the item with an “H”.
Example: “H4. I rarely feel hopeless.”
We will be using an “I” and an “R” to denote irrelevant and reverse-coded items, so please do not use either of those letters to denote regular items. Instead, use the second or third letter from the variable as your label. For example, if you are measuring introversion, use “N” to denote that the item is a regular item measuring introversion
Step 4: Write 10 irrelevant items to hide the true variables in your hypothesis.
All irrelevant items should appear to measure another variable. Let’s call this our “pretend variable”.
The irrelevant items must not measure the variables from your actual hypothesis or any closely related variables. Be sure the pretend variable is totally unrelated to your two real variables. Let’s say I want to test the hypothesis that as introversion increases, income decreases. The pretend variable could measure physical activity, for example. It is safe to say that physical activity is not a dimension of introversion or income for the majority of the population. Whereas, if I want to test the hypothesis that as introversion increases, mental health decreases then physical activity would not make for a good pretend variable because there is evidence that physical activity can have an impact one’s mental health.
For purposes of the key, you should number these ten items (11-20) and put an “I” before the number to denote that it is an irrelevant question.
Example: “I13. I work out more than twice a week.”
3. You will also need to create a measure for the other variable from your group’s hypothesis. You have the option of using a published questionnaire, creating a second original questionnaire, or writing a single demographic question to measure your second variable.
If you would like to use a published questionnaire it will need to be one found in a scholarly journal.
Here are some resources where you may be able to find an appropriate questionnaire for your variable:
The book, “Measures for Clinical Practice and Research” by Corcoran & Fischer contains published surveys that can be used in your research
Try to find a published questionnaire that measures your variable and only your variable. There may not be one available.
If you find a published questionnaire that measures more than just your one variable or is too long, you have the option of only using the items that best measure your variable rather than using the whole questionnaire.
Try to find a published questionnaire that uses a Likert type format and response scale
If the questionnaire is not in Likert format you can still use it but you must convert the format to Likert. For example, you would need to turn items written as questions into statements. Response options that are not in Likert format would have to be converted to a Likert response scale.
Try to find a published questionnaire that includes the key (ie. denotes reverse coded and/or irrelevant items).
If a key is not available but it is clear that there are no irrelevant or reverse-coded items then you may still use the questionnaire. You will just need to write the irrelevant and reverse-coded items yourself.
You will need to create a key for this questionnaire, using the same format as the example questionnaire key and the questionnaire key for your first variable. Like the questionnaire key for your first variable, this questionnaire key should include:
10 regular items (from the published questionnaire)
10 reverse-coded items (from or written by you, but, based on the published questionnaire)
10 irrelevant items (from the published questionnaire or written by you and consisting of one theme that is different than the irrelevant item theme from the questionnaire key your first variable)
the same exact response scale as the questionnaire key for your first variable
a key indicating what the values and letter designations represent
a title
If you choose to write a single demographic question, the following conditions must be met:
The variable is uni-dimensional (not multi-dimensional and/or ambiguous). Sometimes, the best way to measure a variable is with a single demographic question. We don’t want to make our survey longer than it needs to be and some variables just don’t require a lot of items to obtain a valid measurement.
The question response option can be a blank space where participants enter a number (do not provide categories or ranges as response options)
If you choose to create a second original questionnaire then please repeat the five steps for creating a questionnaire key from above (#2).

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