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Describe 1.5°C.
Describe how climate change is impacting the Bay Area?
What is mitigation? What is adaptation? Why are they both important for fighting climate change?
Explain why Climate Justice is important.
Hayward is developing three plans to combat climate change — the Climate Action Plan, the Environmental Justice Element, and the Hazards Element. Categorize each of these plans. Which plan is focused on mitigation? Which plan is focused on Adaptation? Which plan is focused on Climate Justice?
List Hayward’s greatest sources of greenhouse gas emissions and include the percentages (e.g., transportation, waste, electricity, etc.).
What are the goals outlined in Hayward’s climate action plan? The goals are typically related to greenhouse gas emissions reductions. For example, reduce GHG emissions to 2005 levels by 2030.
How is Hayward going to achieve those goals and combat climate change? Here you might find solutions in specific categories or sectors. For example, transportation, buildings, waste, etc.
What are the goals outlined in the Environmental Justice Element?
What are the Hazards described in the Hazards Element?
Draw connections between what you just learned from responding to these questions and to the materials we worked with in units 1 and 2. How does all of this relate to Breaking Boundaries and fossil fuel propaganda?
This United Nations article summarizes the latest report issued by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Scientists have made it crystal clear. If we want to achieve our 1.5°C target, “it’s now or never.”
Read the introduction as well as the HIGHLIGHTS for every section in the document. Read the HIGHLIGHTS for
Precipitation, Drought, and Snowpack,
Fog, Wildfire,
Sea Level Rise,
Transportation Infrastructure,
Land Use and Community Development
Urban Water
Energy Distribution
Energy Consumption and Distributed Generation
Public Health
Natural Infrastructure
Economic Resilience
Emergency Management
Natural and Managed Resource Systems
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Impacts of Climate Change on Vegetation and Habitat Distributions
Aquatic Systems
You can quickly navigate through these sections by clicking on these titles in the Table of Contents. You’re reading the bullet points, not the entire document.
State law (specifically SB 32) requires every jurisdiction to reduce its fair share of GHG emissions and meet State emission goals. The previous CAP addressed meeting State GHG goals for 2020 (per AB32), and this CAP Update will establish actions to meet State goals for 2030 and show progress to meet the State’s ultimate goal of carbon neutrality by 2045.
Hayward’s current GHG emission targets are:
30 percent below 2005 emissions levels by 2025;
55 percent below 2005 emissions levels by 2030; and
Carbon neutrality by 2045.
Currently, our frontline communities are being hit first and worst by the climate crisis. Through climate planning, climate solutions can center racial equity to help equitably achieve the City’s climate goals.
Successful climate planning results in co-benefits, including lower energy costs, reduced air pollution, supported economic development and increased community resilience and adaptive capacity. The reduction of GHGs also helps improve the quality of life for residents in the community.
Climate change is the alteration in the average weather of the Earth that is measured by modifications in wind patterns, storms, precipitation, and temperature. These changes are assessed using historical records of temperature changes occurring in the past, such as during previous ice ages.
Warming affects global atmospheric circulation and temperatures; oceanic circulation and temperatures; wind and weather patterns; average sea level; ocean acidification; chemical reaction rates; precipitation rates, timing, and form; snowmelt timing and runoff flow; water supply; wildfire risks; and other phenomena, in ways collectively referred to as climate change.
Climate change is a global problem because GHGs, while produced at the local level, are global pollutants and can affect weather patterns globally. This is different from criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (i.e., toxic air contaminants like exhaust from a car tailpipe) that are pollutants of regional and local concern.
Potential impacts of climate change in California include:
A reduction in the quality and supply waterLinks to an external site. from the Sierra snowpack;
Increased risk of large wildfiresLinks to an external site.;
Reduction in quality and quantity of certain agricultural products;
Exacerbation of air qualityLinks to an external site. problems;
Links to an external site.A rise in sea levelsLinks to an external site. resulting in the displacement of coastal businesses and residences ;
An increase in temperature and extreme weather events; and
A decrease in health and productivity of California’s forests.
The City of Hayward’s goal is to provide a safe, healthy, and vibrant community and recognizes that doing so requires balancing a growing economy, population, and demand for resources and services while mitigating, reducing, and preventing impacts of climate change.
The Link between Climate Change, Health, and Poverty
Dr. Cheryl Holder is a fellow in the American College of Physicians and a key medical provider leader dedicated to serving underserved populations. As faculty at Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Holder’s work assesses the impact of social determinants of overall health on health outcomes. Her work addresses diversity in the health professions through pipeline programs. Key among her efforts is her work with HIV and the broader health impact associated with climate change.
Holder is the director of the education and pipeline program Green Family Foundation Neighborhood Health Education Learning Program (NeighborhoodHELP). She is president of the Florida State Medical Association and serves as cochair of Florida Clinicians for Climate Action, where she works to increase climate literacy and enhance awareness of the impact of climate change on vulnerable populations. She is the recipient of the 2016 FIU Medallion Cal Kovens Distinguished Community Service Award, the 2017 Faculty Convocation Award in Service and the 2019 Tow Humanism in Medicine Award.

David Lammy is the Labour Member of Parliament for Tottenham, England, where he was born and raised. After being elected for the seventh time in December 2019, he was appointed Shadow Secretary of State for Justice. As part of this role, Lammy built on his landmark review of the criminal justice system, which explored the treatment of and outcomes for Black and minority ethnic people in British courts and prisons. The review included 35 wide-ranging policy recommendations for the government and criminal justice sectors. Lammy previously served under the Blair and Brown Labour governments from 2002 to 2010 as Culture Minister and Higher Education Minister and was appointed to the Privy Council in 2008.
Lammy’s parents arrived in the UK from Guyana as part of the over half a million people who moved from the Caribbean to Britain in the 1970s, known as the Windrush generation. He is renowned for his role in securing justice for the victims of the Windrush Scandal as well as victims of London’s Grenfell Tower Fire, winning both GQ’s and the Political Studies Association’s Politician of the Year in 2018. He is also known for spearheading the fight against Brexit, pushing for more equal access to university and demanding the decolonization of education curriculums and international aid. Lammy explores these issues and more in Tribes: How Our Need to Belong Can Make or Break Society, his book on both the benign and malign effects of our very human need to belong.

What’s in an Environmental Justice Element?
In September 2016, Senate Bill 1000 was adopted to require jurisdictions with “disadvantaged communitiesLinks to an external site.” to incorporate environmental justice policies into their general plans. Disadvantaged communities are neighborhoods with low-income households that are exposed to pollution (e.g., freeways, landfills). State law requires environmental justice policies to be incorporated into the general plan upon the adoption of two or more general elements. The City of Hayward is in the process of updating both the Housing Element and the Safety Element, which also requires the City to include environmental justice policies in the General Plan.
What is Environmental Justice?
Environmental justice provides an important opportunity to identify and address problems that previous governmental actions haven’t addressed, such as fair and equitable access to healthy food, affordable housing, and meaningful participation in actions and decisions made by governments. Environmental degradation and pollution impact all communities; however, low-income and communities of color experience those impacts at a higher rate. For example, in the United States, low-income and minority communities tend to be located closer to environmentally hazardous or degraded environments including hazard and toxic waste-producing facilities, landfills, and energy production facilities resulting in lifelong heath impacts on those communities. The Environmental Justice movement emerged as a political movement to fight abuses and discriminatory practices against historically impacted communities.
What is the multi-cultural history of Hayward?
The City of Hayward is an exceptionally diverse city located at the center of the dynamic San Francisco Bay Area. Hayward’s history can be traced back more than 3,000 years, when it was first occupied by the Ohlone and Yrgin tribes.
The Ohlone are the predominant Indigenous group of the Bay Area, including the Chochenyo and the Karkin in East Bay, the Ramaytush in San Francisco, the Yokuts in South Bay and Central Valley, and the Muwekma tribe throughout the region. The arrival of Spanish explorers and missionaries in the late 1700s was the first major threat to Ohlone existence and culture as a result of forced cultural and religious assimilation, exposure to European diseases, and harsh and unsanitary living conditions. When California became part of the Union in 1850, after the Mexican-American War, the state government sanctioned the mass genocide of Indigenous populations by local militia in the wake of the Gold Rush. By 1852, there were less than 1,000 Ohlone remaining, a 90 percent loss in their pre-colonial era population. By the 1880s, the Bay Area Ohlone population was dramatically reduced.
In 1843, the Mexican government granted soldier and surveyor Guillermo Castro almost 27,000 acres of land stretching from the Bay to beyond the hills, including present-day Castro Valley, Hayward, and San Lorenzo. Castro named the area Rancho San Lorenzo and settled on the site of historic City Hall on Mission Boulevard. Castro’s personal corral still exists today as the City’s Heritage Plaza and Arboretum.
In 1851, a failed prospector named William Hayward, passed through Castro’s land on his way from gold country to San Francisco. Hayward purchased several acres of land from Castro in what is now downtown Hayward. In 1852, Hayward set up a small general store at the corner of A Street and Mission Boulevard. The store became a major stop on the road from Oakland to San Jose, due in no small part to Hayward’s position as Road Commissioner of Alameda County. Hayward expanded his business, erecting a lodging house that grew to become the famous Haywards Hotel.
On the morning of October 21, 1868, the Southern segment of the Hayward Fault ruptured, triggering a Magnitude 7.0 earthquake. Nearly every building in the Hayward area was destroyed or significantly damaged in the earthquake. The 1868 Hayward Quake was known as the “great San Francisco earthquake” until 1906.
When the town was incorporated on March 11, 1876, it was officially named “Haywards” after the landmark hotel. The “s” was dropped several years later. Hayward’s climate, soil, and perfect location in the heart of the Bay Area have spurred tremendous growth for decades. Following World War II, housing developments began replacing farms and ranches. Between 1950 and 1960, the population increased fivefold from 14,000 to 72,000, and has continued to grow ever since.
With 160,000 residents, today the City of Hayward is the sixth-largest city in the Bay Area and a thriving regional center of commerce, manufacturing activity and trade. Known as the “Heart of the Bay,” Hayward has capitalized on its unparalleled location to become one of the most desirable business locations for companies in advanced industries.
Today, Hayward is home to an extremely diverse community, hosted one of the nation’s first annual gay proms, established one of the state’s first Japanese garden, and holds the longest-running Battle of the Bands in America.
Click to learn more about the History of HaywardLinks to an external site.
Is Hayward exposed to pollution?
Hayward is vulnerable to impacts of urban development, particularly air and water pollution.
Air quality has improved significantly in the last 30 years, but transportation emissions still result in ozone and particulate levels that exceed state and federal standards. Burning of fossil fuels—whether through motor vehicles, industry, or energy generation—also generates greenhouse gases, which contribute to global climate change. Motor vehicles are the primary source of air pollution in Hayward and the Bay Area. Industrial and commercial activities such as electronics manufacturing, auto repair, dry cleaning, and the use of solvents are also contributors. Additionally, particulate matter is emitted into the air during construction, grading, and wood burning, which can compound air quality problems. On warm summer days, these sources result in high levels of ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulates throughout the region.
On the topic of water quality, the creeks and channels that flow through Hayward are prone to pollution from a variety of sources. In general, non-point source pollutants such as runoff from lawns and parking lots are harder to control than point sources. Runoff can contain oil, grease, litter, animal waste, household chemicals, pesticides, and other substances that are washed into storm drains and local creeks. This results in high levels of nutrients and depletion of oxygen in these water bodies, which harms aquatic life and causes other environmental problems. In Hayward, all stormwater runoff eventually discharges to San Francisco Bay. The Bay is considered impaired by a number of pollutants, such as mercury and PCBs.
What are the challenges that face Hayward community members?
Hayward’s community faces a number of challenges that are felt on a region-wide basis. There is not enough affordable housing, commutes are long and wages are stagnating. In addition, there are environmental challenges related to climate change, sea level rise, drought, and the threat of earthquakes, floods, wildfires.
How is the City of Hayward addressing Environmental Justice?
In spring 2020, City Council reviewed the City’s Racial Equity Action Plan. The Racial Equity Action Plan is an aspirational roadmap for effecting organizational change and improving service to the community in the City of Hayward. This plan is an early step toward intentionally working to address racial inequities in the City and realize the City of Hayward’s ideal of being a diverse, equitable, and inclusive community.
On September 15, 2021, the Community Services Commission recommended the following actions:
A resolution apologizing to BIPOC on behalf of the City of Hayward for its implicit and explicit role in perpetuating historical institutional racism in the City of Hayward; and
That the Council adopt a workplan to address the City’s historical wrongdoings
These requests may be adopted by Council on October 19.
What types of policies will be included in the new Environmental Justice Element?
In light of the history of Hayward and existing community characteristics, the City of Hayward will prepare a new Environmental Justice Element that will contain goals and policies:
Reducing pollution exposure and improving air quality, particularly for disadvantaged communities
Promoting access to public facilities
Promoting access to healthy foods
Promoting safe and sanitary homes
Promoting physical activity
Promoting civic engagement
Hayward’s Environmental Justice Element at a Glance
*Notice the goals*

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